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July 08, 2023 8 min read

Situated at the base of your neck, the small, butterfly-shaped thyroid gland significantly impacts your health and well-being. This includes your menstrual cycle as well. Shocked to hear that? If your periods have been different recently, your thyroid gland could be responsible. But how? And what can you do about it? Well, keep reading to find out!

How does hypothyroidism affect your menstruation?

Hypothyroidism, often referred to as an underactive thyroid, is a thyroid disease that arises when the thyroid gland produces too little thyroid hormones, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). An integral part of our body's metabolism, these hormones play a significant role in many biological processes, including a woman's menstrual cycle.

The production of T3 and T4 is delicately regulated by Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) released by the pituitary gland in the brain. When thyroid hormones drop below desired levels, the pituitary churns out more TSH to stimulate the thyroid gland to step up production. Interestingly, hypothyroidism often presents itself in blood tests as a high TSH level, signifying an underactive thyroid.

Hypothyroidism is primarily caused by the thyroid gland's inability to produce enough thyroid hormones. This condition can result from various triggers. These include an autoimmune disease called Hashimoto's disease, where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland. Also, certain thyroid diseases or treatments, such as thyroid surgery, can potentially lead to hypothyroidism. Lastly, physical changes to the thyroid gland itself, such as an enlarged thyroid gland or having been born with a partially or completely missing thyroid, can also cause hypothyroidism.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism extend beyond our metabolic system, with symptoms varying from fatigue, weight gain, and cold sensitivity to dry skin and hair loss. Among women, the story takes a unique turn as too little thyroid hormone can disrupt the menstrual cycle and fertility. But how does this happen? Let's take a look.

Prolactin and GnRH

Let's delve deeper into the woman-specific implications of hypothyroidism by observing the interaction between T3, T4, and two pivotal hormones: Prolactin and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH).

When thyroid hormone levels dip, the hypothalamus in the brain produces excessive amounts of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), prompting the pituitary gland to release surplus TSH and Prolactin. The surge in Prolactin inhibits the production of GnRH. Now, GnRH is crucial for the creation of Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) - key hormones that play stellar roles in normal ovarian function. A decrease in their levels due to hypothyroidism can lead to menstrual irregularities.

Estrogen and progesterone

A critical balance that shapes the menstrual cycle is the interplay between Estrogen and Progesterone, two hormones closely tied to the workings of the ovaries. Estrogen manages the growth of the uterine lining in the first half of the menstrual cycle until ovulation, while Progesterone stabilizes the lining afterward, facilitating the potential implantation of a fertilized egg.

Inadequate amounts of Progesterone or excess Estrogen disrupt this balance and could lead to heavy bleeding. Interestingly, it is possible to experience periods without ovulation, and these non-ovulatory cycles often result in heavier bleeding.

What are the characteristics of normal menstruation?

It's important to understand that 'normal' can have different meanings for each woman when it comes to her menstrual cycle. The core element to pay attention to is consistency, both in the duration of the cycle and the accompanying symptoms.

The menstrual cycle in women is a natural process that is typically marked by consistent patterns. This cycle happens over an average of 28 days, though it can range anywhere between 26 to 32 days.

A key characteristic of a menstrual cycle is menstruation, often referred to as a 'period.' This is when the lining of the uterus is shed, and it usually lasts between 3 to 7 days.

When we speak about the menstrual flow during this period, it usually starts off as bright red in color, indicating fresh bleeding. As the days' progress, the color tends to change from bright red to a somewhat darker shade, and finally, towards the end, the color usually becomes browner. The volume of bleeding varies from woman to woman, but at peak flow, it tends to be in the range of 30 to 40 milliliters per day.

Part of the menstrual blood is the uterine tissue that is shed, which means the menstrual blood can appear denser or have a stringy texture. However, the presence of heavy clots could be an indicator that something might be amiss.

While going through menstruation, it's not uncommon for women to experience abdominal discomfort. This could present itself as mild to moderate cramping, but anything severe is usually not typical and might warrant medical attention.

Should any major changes in your menstrual cycle occur, or if your period doesn't align with the general characteristics mentioned above, it's advisable to seek professional medical counsel. These changes could indicate anomalies within the endocrine system, including conditions such as hypothyroidism. Remember, deviations in your menstrual cycle aren't always cause for concern, but they signal that you should pay closer attention to your body and involve health professionals when needed.

What are the menstrual problems associated with hypothyroidism?

Here are some menstrual problems that can occur due to hypothyroidism:

1. Heavy bleeding

Hypothyroidism can lead to heavy menstrual bleeding, medically termed as menorrhagia. This could be due to the slowed-down metabolic functions from the lack of sufficient thyroid hormones, causing overgrowth of the endometrial lining in the uterus. This results in periods that are heavier than usual and often associated with intense menstrual cramps and prolonged bleeding duration. Anemia from significant blood loss might also be a concern in this scenario.

2. Infrequent or irregular periods

Hypothyroidism can also lead to infrequent or irregular periods, known as oligomenorrhea. This manifests as longer menstrual cycles, usually spanning more than 35 days. This irregularity arises from slowed-down body functions, including the ovulation process, due to low levels of thyroid hormones.

3. Frequent menstrual bleeding

The flip side can also occur, where women with hypothyroidism experience periods unusually frequently, a condition known as polymenorrhea. Periods might occur every 21 days or even less, indicating an imbalance in the hormonal regulation of the menstrual cycle, potentially triggered by hypothyroidism.

4. Absent menstrual cycle

Not having enough thyroid hormone might, in some cases, lead to amenorrhea, characterized by an absence of periods. This happens when hormonal imbalances caused by hypothyroidism halt the menstrual cycle altogether. Women who have no period for several months outside of pregnancy or menopause should consult with a healthcare provider, as amenorrhea can lead to complications such as infertility.

Understanding these menstrual abnormalities linked with hypothyroidism is vital for early detection and intervention. Experiencing any of these irregularities warrants a discussion with healthcare providers to explore the possible underlying causes and initiate appropriate treatment if needed. By being proactive and responsive to your body's signals, you can better manage your health and well-being.

Does hypothyroidism's effect on menstruation impact fertility?

Untreated hypothyroidism can potentially pose challenges for women trying to conceive and increase the likelihood of miscarriage and complications during pregnancy. This arises from the way the condition affects various elements associated with fertility and pregnancy.

For pregnancy to occur, successful ovulation and a healthy endometrial lining in the uterus, where an embryo can implant, are essential. Hypothyroidism, however, can throw a wrench in the works. This condition might result in a shortened luteal phase, the span between ovulation, and the onset of menstruation, which could make embryonic implantation difficult.

By preventing or disrupting ovulation, low thyroid hormone levels can make it more challenging for women to conceive. Extending its effects to menopause, hypothyroidism can sometimes precipitate early menopause, occurring before or around the age of 40.

Lastly, it's worth noting that untreated thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, can heighten a woman's risk of experiencing miscarriages. Therefore, if a woman finds it difficult to conceive or has a history of miscarriages, thorough thyroid function testing should be considered to rule out or manage hypothyroidism as a contributing factor. Unraveling and addressing such underlying issues pave the way for successful conception and a healthier pregnancy journey.

How to treat menstrual problems caused by hypothyroidism

Effectively managing hypothyroidism-induced menstrual problems starts with an open dialogue with healthcare practitioners, appropriate diagnosis, effective treatments, and a lifestyle supportive of hormonal health. Let's explore each of these stages in detail:

1. Talk to your doctor and request a blood test

Your journey begins with talking to your doctor about your symptoms. A comprehensive detailing of your symptoms is vital—don't leave anything unsaid, even discomforts you think might be irrelevant. Remember, you are your own best health advocate. Coupled with your symptoms, specific blood tests are needed to confirm a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. These tests can measure the levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) in your blood.

2. Tackle the root cause by treating your hypothyroidism

Once hypothyroidism is confirmed, treatment plans can then be tailored to your specific needs. This generally involves thyroid hormone replacement therapy to replenish the deficient hormone levels in your body.


This synthetic form of the hormone thyroxine (T4) is often the first line of treatment. It's formulated to mimic the natural thyroid hormone. The goal of levothyroxine is to make up for the shortage of thyroid hormones caused by hypothyroidism. As such, this thyroid medication helps to restore a proper balance of thyroid hormones in the body and eases symptoms of hypothyroidism, like problems with menstruation.

Natural Desiccated Thyroid (NDT)

While levothyroxine is widely used, it's important to remember that every person is unique and may respond differently to treatments. This is where Natural Desiccated Thyroid (NDT) comes into the picture. NDT provides a more holistic approach. It's derived from the dried thyroid glands of pigs and contains both T4 and T3 thyroid hormones, replicating more closely our body's natural ratio of thyroid hormones. Those who still experience symptoms with levothyroxine often find relief with NDT. Lots of people who have tried both Levothyroxine and Natural Desiccated Thyroid (NDT) seem to lean more towards NDT. It might just be something about the way they feel after having taken it, but the preference appears to be clear.

NDT makes its way to patients in various forms, including both pharmaceutical medications and health supplements. Among these, two medication brands, Armour Thyroid, and NP Thyroid, enjoy significant popularity in the United States.

You can also buy desiccated thyroid online in a health supplement form, such as VitaliThy. What sets NDT supplements like VitaliThy apart is their blend of not just T4 and T3 but also allied ingredients such as spica prunellae siccus extract, ashwagandha extract, and selenium yeast. These ingredients could give your thyroid health a boost.

Besides, you don't have to worry about dietary restrictions with VitaliThy. This supplement is gluten-free, lactose-free, and doesn't have artificial colors or flavors. It also doesn't contain any beef, eggs, fish, or shellfish. So, for those who have specific dietary habits, needs, or allergies, VitaliThy could be a great choice to consider.

Taking the right dosage is important

Determining the appropriate dosage of thyroid hormone replacement is a crucial aspect of treating hypothyroidism. Achieving this balance is paramount as it ensures the body receives just the right amount of thyroid hormones to function optimally without tipping over into excess.

Administering too much thyroid hormone is akin to overfilling a glass of water—the overflow can lead to a state of hyperthyroidism, marked by an overactive thyroid. This condition upends the body's delicate hormonal balance, much like hypothyroidism, and may also bring about a host of menstrual abnormalities.

3. Add a dash of lifestyle changes

Last but not least, let's not underestimate the power of lifestyle changes in managing hypothyroid-related menstrual problems. A wholesome, balanced diet, regular physical activity, stress management techniques, and a good night's sleep can work wonders. These steps not only support general health but also optimize thyroid function and your body's response to treatment.

Tackling menstrual problems caused by hypothyroidism, therefore, calls for a multifaceted approach. And while it can seem overwhelming, remember, you're not alone on this journey. Partner with your healthcare provider and be proactive about your health. Keep the communication lines open, be informed about your treatment choices, and embrace lifestyle decisions that nurture your well-being. Most importantly, keep hope alive because, with the right steps, better health is close at hand!

Wojciech Majda
Wojciech Majda

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